Dryland Cropping Systems
A. Schlegel and J. D. Holman
Abstract: Beginning in 2012, research was conducted in Garden City and Tribune, KS, to determine the effect of a single tillage operation every 3 years on grain yields in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation. Grain yields of wheat and grain sorghum were generally not affected by a single tillage operation every 3 years in a WSF rotation. Grain yield varied greatly by year from 2014 to 2019. Wheat yields ranged across years from mid-20s to 90 bu/a at Tribune and less than 10 to near 100 bu/a at Garden City. Grain sorghum yields ranged from 40 to greater than 140 bu/a, depending upon year and location. In 2019, wheat yields at Garden City were less when tillage was implemented post-wheat in 2016. There were no other years or locations were grain yields were significantly affected by a single tillage operation. However, at Tribune, when averaged across the 6-year period, a single tillage after wheat harvest reduced grain sorghum yields compared to a complete no-till (NT) system. At Garden City, averaged across the 6-year period, wheat yields were greatest following a one-time tillage prior to wheat. This indicates that if a single tillage operation is needed to control troublesome weeds, tillage during fallow prior to wheat planting may be better than tillage after wheat harvest. Furthermore, if herbicide-resistant weed populations were high enough to cause yield reductions, then tillage might improve yields.
A. Schlegel, L. Haag and A. Burnett
Abstract: This study was conducted from 2008–2019 at the Kansas State University Southwest Research- Extension Center near Tribune, KS. The purpose of the study was to identify whether more intensive cropping systems can enhance and stabilize production in rainfed cropping systems to optimize economic crop production, more efficiently capture and utilize scarce precipitation, and maintain or enhance soil resources and environmental quality. The crop rotations evaluated were continuous grain sorghum (SS), wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF), wheat-corn-sorghum-fallow (WCSF), and wheat-sorghum-corn-fallow (WSCF). All rotations were grown using no-tillage practices except for WF, which was grown using reduced-tillage. The efficiency of precipitation capture was not greater with more intensive rotations. Length of rotation had little effect on wheat yields. Corn and grain sorghum yields were about 45–50% greater when following wheat than when following corn or grain sorghum. Grain sorghum yields were about 45% greater than corn in similar rotations.
A. Schlegel and A. Burnett
Abstract: This study was initiated in 1991 at the Kansas State University Southwest Research- Extension Center near Tribune, KS. The purpose of the study was to identify the effects of tillage intensity on precipitation capture, soil water storage, and grain yield in a wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation. Grain yields of wheat and grain sorghum increased with decreased tillage intensity in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation. In 2019, available soil water at sorghum planting was greater for no-tillage (NT) than reduced tillage (RT) which was greater than conventional tillage (CT). For wheat there was a similar pattern as sorghum, with available soil water at wheat planting being in the order of NT>RT>CT. Averaged across the 19-yr study, available soil water at wheat planting was similar for NT and RT and approximately 1 inch greater than CT. Average available soil water at sorghum planting was greater in the order RT≥NT>CT. Averaged across the past 19 years, NT wheat yields were 5 bu/a greater than RT and 9 bu/a greater than CT. Grain sorghum yields in 2019 were 50% greater in long-term NT compared to short-term NT with the lowest yields with CT. Averaged across the past 19 years, sorghum yields with long-term NT have been 58% greater than with short-term NT (79 vs. 50 bu/a).
A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, and A. Burnett
Abstract: In 1996, an effort began to quantify soil water storage, crop water use, and crop productivity on dryland systems in western Kansas. Research on 4-year crop rotations with wheat and grain sorghum was initiated at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS. Rotations were wheat-wheat-sorghum-fallow (WWSF), wheat-sorghum-sorghum-fallow (WSSF), and continuous wheat (WW). Soil water at wheat planting averaged about 9 in. following sorghum, which is about 3 in. more than the average for the second wheat crop in a WWSF rotation. Soil water at sorghum planting was only about 1.5 in. less for the second sorghum crop compared to sorghum following wheat. The 2019 grain yields of both wheat and grain sorghum in all rotations were much greater than the long-term average. Grain yield of recrop wheat averaged about 75% of the yield of wheat following sorghum. Grain yield of continuous wheat averaged about 60% of the yield of wheat grown in a 4-year rotation following sorghum. Generally, wheat yields were similar following one or two sorghum crops. Similarly, average sorghum yields were the same following one or two wheat crops. Yield of the second sorghum crop in a WSSF rotation averages ~65% of the yield of the first sorghum crop.
Abstract: A field study initiated in 2006 at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS, was designed to evaluate the effects of three wheat stubble heights on subsequent grain yields of corn and grain sorghum. Corn and sorghum yields in 2019 were greater than the long-term average. When averaged from 2007 through 2019, corn grain yields were 8–9 bu/a greater when planted into either high or strip-cut stubble than into low-cut stubble. Average grain sorghum yields were 5 bu/a greater in high-cut stubble than low-cut stubble. Similarly, water use efficiency was greater for high or strip-cut stubble for corn and greater for high-cut stubble for grain sorghum than for low-cut stubble. Harvesting wheat shorter than necessary causes a yield penalty for the subsequent row crops, especially dryland corn.
A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, and L. Haag
Abstract: Four winter wheat varieties (PlainsGold Byrd, Limagrain T158, Syngenta TAM 111, and WestBred Winterhawk) were planted at five seeding rates (30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 lb/a) in the fall of 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 at Colby, Garden City, and Tribune, KS. The objective of the study is to identify appropriate seeding rates for dryland winter wheat in western Kansas. Averaged across varieties, a seeding rate of 60 lb/a seemed to be adequate at all locations in 2015. However, with higher yields in 2016, a higher seeding rate (75 lb/a) was beneficial. Although yields were less in 2017 than 2016, a seeding rate of 75 lb/a generally produced the highest yields. In 2018, yield increased with increased seeding rate. The wheat variety T158 was the highest yielding (or in the highest group) at all locations in 2015. Other varieties may have been affected by differential response to stripe rust and winter injury resulting in lower yields. In 2016, the highest yielding variety varied by location. TAM 114 was in the highest yielding variety at each location in 2017. In 2018, Winterhawk was the lowest yielding variety. Variety selection and growing season appears to have more effect on wheat yields than seeding rate. A seeding rate of 30 or 45 lb/a, and often 60 lb/a, resulted in lower yields than the 75 or 90 lb/a rate. Yield response to seeding rate, and optimal seeding rate for any site-year was similar across varieties.
J. Holman, A. Obour, A. Schlegel, T. Roberts, and S. Maxwell
J. Holman, A. Obour, A. Schlegel, T. Roberts, and S. Maxwell
J. Holman, A. Obour, A. Schlegel, T. Roberts, and S. Maxwell
Holman, J.D., A. Schlegel, A.K. Obour, and Y. Assefa. 2020. Dryland cropping system impact on forage accumulation, nutritive value, and rainfall use efficiency. Crop Sci. n/a/;n/a. DOI:10.1002/csc2.20251
Schlegel, A.J., J.D. Holman, and Y. Assefa. 2020. A single tillage on a long-term no-till system on dryland crop performance. Agron. J. 112:3174-3187 DOI:10.1002/agj2.20284
Obour, A.K., J.D. Holman, and A.J. Schlegel. 2020. Spring triticale forage response to seeding rate and nitrogen application. Agrosyst Geosci Environ. 2020;3:e20053. DOI: 10.1002/agg2.20053
Munaro, L.B., T.J. Hefley, E. DeWolf, S. Haley, A.K. Fritz, G. Zhang, L.A. Haag, A.J. Schlegel, J.T. Edwards, D. Marburger, P. Alderman, S.M. Jones-Diamond, J. Johnson, J.E. Lingenfelser, S.H. Unêda-Trevisoli, and R.P. Lollato. 2020. Exploring long-term variety performance trials to improve enviroment-specific genotype x management recommendations: A case-study for winter wheat. J. Field Crops Research v255. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2020.107848
- Havlin, J.L., and A.J. Schlegel. 2020. Enhancing phosphorus-use efficiency in crop production. Burleigh Dodds Series in Ag. Sci. DOI:10.19103/as.2019.0062.08
- Obour, A.K., J.D. Holman, and A.J. Schlegel. 2019. Seeding rate and nitrogen application effects on oat forage yield and nutritive value. J. Plant Nutrition 42:13, 1452-1460. DOI:10.1080/01904167.2019.1617311
- Schlegel, A.J., Y. Assefa, L.A. Hagg, C.R. Thompson, and L.R. Stone. 2019. Soil water and water use in long-term dryland crop rotations. Argon. J. 111:2590-2599. DOI:10.2134/agronj2018.09.0623
Schwartz, R.C., A.J. Schlegel, J.M. Bell, R.L. Baumhart, and S.R. Evett. 2019. Contrasting tillage effects on stored soil water, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes in a dryland rotation at two locations. Soil and Tillaga Research 190:157-174. DOI:10.1016/j.still.2019.02.013
Schlegel, A.J., Y., Assefa, L.A. Haag, C.R. Thompson, and L.R. Stone. 2019. Yield and overall productivity under long-term wheat-based crop rotations: 2000 through 2016. Agron. J. 111:264-274. doi:10.2134/agronj2018.03.0171
Schlegel, A.J., Y., Assefa, L.A. Haag, C.R. Thompson, and L.R. Stone. 2018. Long-term tillage on yield and water use of grain sorghum and winter wheat. Agron. J. 110:269-280. doi:10.2134/ag ronj2017.02.0104
Schlegel, A.J., F.R. Lamm*, Y. Assefa, and L.R. Stone. 2018. Dryland corn and grain sorghum yield response to available soil water at planting. Agron. J. 110:236-245. doi:10.2134/agronj2017.07.0398
Ciampitti, I.A., P.V.V. Prasad, A.J. Schlegel, L. Haag, R. W. Schnell, B. Arnall, and J. Lofton. 2017. Genotype x environment x management interactions: US sorghum cropping systems. p. 20. In I.A. Ciampitti and P.V.V. Prasad (eds.) Sorghum: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. Agron. Monogr. 58. ASA and CSSA, Madison, WI. doi:10:2134/agronmonogr58.2014.0067
Lamm, F.R., D.H. Rogers, A.J. Schlegel, X. Lin, R.M. Aiken, N.L. Klocke, L. R. Stone, and L.K. Shaw. 2017. Trends in plant available soil water on producer fields of western Kansas. Applied Eng. Agric. 33(6):859-868. DOI: 10.13031/aea.12452
Holman, J.D., K. Arnet, A. Dille, I. Kisekka, S. Maxwell, A. Obour, T., Roberts, K. Roozeboom, and A.J. Schlegel. 2018. Can cover or forage crops replace fallow in the semiarid central Great Plains. Crop Sci. 58:1-13. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2017.05.0324
Moberly, J.T., R.M. Aiken, X. Lin, A.J. Schlegel, R.L. Baumhardt, and R.C. Schwartz. 2017. Crop water production functions of grain sorghum and winter wheat in Kansas and Texas. J. Cont. Water Resource Res. Educ. 162:L42-60.
Schlegel, A.J., Y. Assefa, L.A. Haag, C.R. Thompson, J.D. Holman, and L.R. Stone. 2017. Yield and soil water in three dryland wheat and grain sorghum rotations. Agron. J. 109:227-238. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2016.05.0294
Schlegel, A.J., Y. Assefa, T.J.Dumler, L.A. Haag, L.R. Stone, A.D. Halvorson, and C.R. Thompson. 2016. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains. Agron. J. 108:1132-1141. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2015.0536
Assefa, Y., K. Roozeboom, C.R. Thompson, A.J. Schlegel, L.R. Stone, and J. Lingenfelser. 2014. Corn and grain sorghum comparison: All things considered. Academic Press, Elsevier, Oxford, UK
Taylor, R.K. S.A. Staggenborg, C.B. Godsey, A.J. Schlegel, and R.D. Kochenower. 2014. A method to evaluate seeder performance. J. Agric. Engineering 1:38-42